By the Civil Society on the Rwandan Access to Information Bill
The Rwanda Civil Society as a community representative, cognisant:
that there cannot be real democracy and good governance without effective citizen participation, and that there cannot be effective citizen participation without access to information.
that the right to access to information is fundamental human right and a cornerstone for all other rights enshrined in the constitution of the Republic of Rwanda of 4th June 2003 as amended to date.
that to attain the aspirations in the vision 2020, MDGs and EDPRS, it is critical that information is availed to the public for its effective participation in the development process, and for the promotion of transparency and accountability.
Therefore pursuant to:
Article 19 of the international covenant on civil and political rights which provides that:
1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.
2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.
3. The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others;
(b) For the protection of national security or of public order or of public health or morals .
Article 19 of the Universal declaration of human rights which provides that:
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes the freedom to hold opinion without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers .
Article 9 of the African charter on human and peoples’ Rights which provides that:
Every individual shall have a right to receive information .
The Rwanda Civil Society appreciates the Rwandan Bill on access to information especially in article 33 on the protection of applicants of access to information from the burden of proof; on the set objectives; on limited exemption provided for in article 5 of the bill where the protection of information is confronted against the harm test; the proactive and maximum disclosure of information in article7 and 8; a clear process on access to information; inclusion of both public and private bodies especially in article 1 paragraph 6 and article 17 under title iv, where it says, that information is necessary for the enforcement or protection of any freedom or right recorganized under the constitution or any other Law; the protection of whistleblowers in article 37; time frame for response by government bodies; fair cost on access to information under article 15 especially where the fees could be waived off in cases where payment may cause financial hardship to the applicant, where disclosure is in public interest and where the collection fee exceeds the amount collected; and the provision of a clear role of oversight to the office of the Ombudsman.
The Civil Society also appreciates the implementation and enforcement mechanisms provided for under article 35, mechanisms on the promotion of the law and the provision of a strong network to raise public awareness of the law under article 36, that is made up of Media High Council; Rwanda Governance advisory Council; Gender Monitoring Office; National Human Rights Commission; and the Bar Association.
These positive attributes of the bill are highly appreciated, however the Rwanda Civil Society would like to caution the Parliamentarian Political Affairs committee to consider revision of the following areas of the bill before it can be fully adopted into Law.
1. Exemption clause: we appreciate the nature of limited exemption of article: 5. However paragraph 3 should clearly clarify ‘unwarranted invasion of the privacy of an individual’, to ensure that information of public nature on an individual is not denied to the public under the pretext of individual privacy.
Paragraph 5 of the same article ‘damage a public authority’s position in any actual’ or contemplate legal proceeding. The highlighted sentence could be a hindrance to access to information and this can serve as a drawback clause that could take back the same rights recognized under the same Law.
2. Harm test clause: The Civil Society appreciates the consultation process provided for under Article 6 to develop guidelines determining when information would cause serious harm to national security of Rwanda. However we suggest that an independent organization like, Civil Society Organizations and Private Media, should be part of these consultations instead of limiting the coverage to the Minister, Office of the Ombudsman, the Human Rights Commission and the Minister responsible for matters relating to national security. We highly recommend that consultations with independent bodies by the government be carried out in order to have guidelines that reflect representative views.
3. The role of public information officers in relation to their superiors: we appreciate the clear role of the information officer provided for under article 9 title III of the Bill, and that the public information officer shall be of sufficient rank within the public authority, empowered to make binding decisions in relation to information disclosure under the Law, however we recommend that in case this information officer seeks help from any other person or his superiors, this person that is requested should immediately and automatically qualify to be an information officer by virtue of receiving the request from the designed information officer seeking assistance, thus answerable and can also face charges and sanctions provided under this Law.
The same article should regulate the circumstances where the information officer is unable to perform his/her duties due to any reason including sickness, maternity leave, annual leave or she/he is under suspension.
4. Time frame for response from public authority: The Rwanda Civil Society appreciates the realistic time frame in article 11 under title III of the bill for the information officer to respond to the applicant and which cannot exceed 3 working days after receiving the application, within 24 hours in case the sought information concerns life or liberty of a person, and 2 days in case information is sought for news by journalists. However we caution about the 10 days provided for under article 12 for a response from the public authority or private body to whom the application has been referred to by the information officer. We therefore recommend that this period be reduced to at least 5 working days from the date that the application was first made, failing which the request shall be deemed to have been rejected, except in circumstances provided for under article 11 paragraph 4.
5. Access to information in private bodies: Article 12 under title IV should clearly specify the competent court a person may apply to for an order requiring the private body to provide information on the ground that the information is urgently and immediately required in the interests of preservation of life or liberty of a person. The word “private body” should also clearly be defined and given extensive interpretation to include individuals that might hold information necessary for enforcement of any freedom or right that is recognized under the constitution or any other Law.
6. Offences and penalties: The Civil Society overall, appreciates the manifested good intentions in providing for sanctions in article 34 under title VI of the bill. However the provided sanctions and penalties of 100,000RWF to 300,000RWF and 100,000RWF to 500,000RWF are not good enough to deter offenders of rights to access to information especially in likely cases of conspiracy between the management and information officers. We therefore recommend the revision of sanctions in general. The sanctions provided for in case of recidivism in paragraph 3 should be the one’s applied on first time offenders, and in case of recidivism, the penalties should be raised to 12 month imprisonment and a fine ranging from 2,000,000RWF to 4,000,000RWF. These sanctions are very critical in order to have this Law effectively implemented and to set a good and successful precedent in promotion of access to information freedoms. These penalties are proposed in reference to other laws on access to information; a case in point is the South African Public Access to Information Act of 2000 that provides for a two year imprisonment to offenders of Access to Information Rights.
The Rwanda Civil Society would also like to point out the inconsistence in the three languages of the bill “English, Kinyarwanda and French”, for the example the court of appeal referred to under Article 32 in English is the High Court, (la Cour Suprême) in French and in Kinyarwanda (URUKIKO RWISUMBUYE) meaning the court of high instance. In this case, the same article provides for different jurisdiction for the same matter. We therefore recommend harmonization of the three versions of the text bill in English, French and Kinyarwanda before being adopted into a law.
7. Records that cannot be found: The bill is silent on situations where the requested information, a) is in the public body’s possession, but cannot be found or, b) does not exist. In this case we recommend that the bill imposes obligations to the public authority or the designed private body, to clearly show all steps taken in search for the information and inform the requester (applicant) of all taken steps plus contact details of those involved. In case this information is found at a later date, it should be availed to the requester/applicant.
8. Gender Sensitive and Disaggregated Data: Article 1 point 9 states that the law progressively promotes the full realization of the freedom of information, and article 40 paragraph 4 talks about the ministerial order to provide for special provisions to enable persons with disability, youth, women and other marginalized groups to fully enjoy their rights to access information in regard to this Law; Although we appreciate the promotion of this full realization and the provisions to be provided in the ministerial order to enable persons with disability, youth, women and other marginalized groups to fully enjoy their rights to access information, we strongly suggest that any information requested should be gender disaggregated so that the law can promote gender equality through being gender sensitive.
9. The role of the oversight body: The Rwanda Civil Society appreciates the provision of an oversight body for the effective enforcement of this law. Title V from article 25 to 31, the bill provides for powers of the Office of Ombudsman as an oversight body in relation to the enforcement of the rights on access to information, however on the other hand, Article 7 bis of the law n° 25/08/2003 establishing the organization and the functioning of the Office of the Ombudsman as amended to date provides that; Faithful declaration of assets shall be confidentially kept such that knowledge of their content shall only be known to the owners and their receivers. If considered necessary, the President of the Supreme Court or the Prosecutor General of the Republic, after requesting for it in writing from the Chief Ombudsman, or the Senate, may be shown a faithful declaration of an accused person so that investigations may be carried out. However, if it is concerned with those dignitaries, the faithful declarations shall be requested for by their Assistants. The Rwanda Civil Society would like to caution about the contradiction between the Ombudsman’s duties on confidentiality in relation to the enforcement of the rights of access to information provided under this bill.
10. Finally we would also like to point out that this bill lacks article 4, and we also recommend the bill to define personal information under definitions in article 2. This is important in order to avoid ambiguity which can lead to miss use of the term by those having interest in protecting information of public nature. We therefore suggest that the following should be taken into consideration while defining this term:
– Information relating to the race, gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, national, ethnic, sexual orientation, age, physical or mental health, well-being, religious beliefs.
The Rwanda Civil Society is confident that if this bill is revised to take into account these recommendations, adopted into a Law and well implemented, will not only promote an open government in Rwanda, but will serve as a role model in the region and on the African continent at large.
Multiparty political dispensation is a not a new phenomenon in Rwanda .even before independence in 1962 political parties existed. But it comes into forces during the 2003 presidential elections. After the adoption of the constitution in 2003 which established multi-party political system in Rwanda where citizens can elect, renew or withdraw the mandate of the people they voted into power
It is in this context that the Rwandan Civil Society Platform established an independent election observation mission to conduct impartial, systematic and professional monitoring of key elements of the parliamentarian election in 2008 and 2010 Presidential election so as to enhance the prospects of transparent and credible elections. The Civil Society Election Observation Mission has sought to identify the strengths and weaknesses of this electoral process in order to contribute to possible improvements in future electoral processes.
The presence of independent elections observers, both domestic and international, during the 2010 presidential elections constitute one element of genuine elections
The CSEOM has used a comprehensive methodology to benchmark laws, procedures and practices against international electoral standards. These standards, derived from international legal instruments, can be summarised as the requirements for periodic and genuine elections; citizens’ right to stand for elections; universal suffrage; the right to vote; equal suffrage; respect for the secrecy of vote, and respect for the expression of the will of the voters. These standards are relevant to all stages of an electoral process.
Of the ten political parties registered in Rwanda, four fielded their presidential candidates. These are: PSD, PL, PPC, and RPF. Two other political parties namely FDU Inkingi and Green Party expressed their desire to register their candidature but lacked legal recognition.
There was 5 156 775 registered voters in Rwanda among whom 54% were women.
The current registration framework is guided and guaranteed by the 2003 Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda, the Organic Law No 03/2010 /OL of 18/06/2010 governing Presidential and Parliamentary elections which provide sufficient safeguards for holding regular elections. The electoral system provides for a universal suffrage through a direct and secret ballot.
The National Electoral Commission of Rwanda (NEC) derives from article 180 of the Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda. It has the duty to prepare conduct and supervise elections for local, parliamentary, senatorial and presidential elections as well as referenda.
The NEC is composed of three branches: the Council of Commissioners; the bureau of the commission and the Executive Secretariat which is the technical branch. The Council of Commissioners has seven members who are named by the Government and approved by the Senate. Commissioners may renew their three-year mandate just once.
During this electoral process, the National Electoral Commission of Rwanda has demonstrated a high level of organizational capacity. This was especially clear that NEC respected the overall electoral timetable. On Election Day, all the preparations enabled a day characterized by calm and ordered polling. The level of competence of NEC representatives throughout the country appeared sound and adequate.
The electoral procedures and instructions issued by the NEC was simple and very clear compared to those of 2008 elections especially procedures for counting, transmission and consolidation of the resultants. The 2010 Presidential elections had 4 candidates compared to 2003 which made the electoral contest more competitive. There was a demonstration of more improvement in 2010 presidential election than in 2003.
The decentralisation of polling locations to village (umudugu) level and the resulting increase in the number of polling stations and rooms since the 2003 elections are to be commended, as they enhanced voters’ access. There were 2273 polling stations across the country, and 15,507 polling rooms for presidential elections.
According to the Constitution, the NEC has both the duty and the exclusive responsibility for ensuring provision of voter education to the population. The Commission may choose to increase the number of civil society organisations delegate to conduct some elements of civic education on election, but these must follow the NEC curriculum. This will increase the number of citizens especially in rural area across the country to benefit from more concerted efforts to ensure they are all aware of the mechanics of elections.
Some civil society organisations (CSOs) like CCOAIB, PRO-FEMMES, AMI…that have in their missions good governance programmes participated in voter education.
During the campaign, the political party’s messages included some elements of civic education (where to vote, how to vote, how to fold the ballot…)
The voters were aware of the polling stations location, the staring time 6:00 am and ending time 15:00 pm. The counting of votes began immediately after the close of the voting exercise.
The electoral law stipulates that the list is maintained and updated. Before the election the voters list has been reduced to the level of each village (mudugudu) so that everyone can check it easily and make the necessary corrections.
After the publication and correction of the provisional voters list, the final voters list was published by NEC on July 23rd and included 5,156,775 voters (Diaspora excluded) which 2,823,264 were women. The voter card used is the one delivered in 2008 parliamentary elections. The card remained valid as long as it was in good condition.
The updated electoral list included biometric data that give an easy way to manage the distribution of the new voter cards. Although the law requires voting, the person must present his identity card and voter’s card.
The CSEOM welcomes the fact that there were measures to facilitate citizen’s enrollment on the electoral register to vote as well even if they lost one or the other documents required.
Registration of Candidates
The candidate for President of the Republic may come from a political party, a coalition of political parties or an independent candidate and must have a completing number of criteria for acceptable.
Of the ten political parties registered in Rwanda, four fielded their presidential candidates. These are: PSD, PL, PPC, and RPF. Two other political parties namely FDU Inkingi and Green Party expressed their desire to register their candidature but lacked legal recognition.
The campaign officially began on July 20th and closed on August 8th at 6 am.
The campaign activities have gone well and stood around the country in a festive atmosphere. The candidates campaigned properly, without strong language, and with a mutual respect.
The security was assured and the media covered all the meetings of all political parties.
The public media relayed messages from candidates of different parties in an equitable manner.
All candidates gave messages containing social projects that met the concerns of the population.
Most of the time, citizens participate in the campaign voluntarily except some cases of pressure recorded at some places apparently due to some overzealous certain public authorities.
The CSEOM also found a big difference between the logistics used by the RPF party and those of other political parties.
Overall, there was no excessive abuse of public resources. However, it was found that in some places, state officials have actively participated in the preparations and conduct of political campaigns.
Freedom of expression and speech are guaranteed under the 2003 constitution. The role of media organisations is defined by the a legislative framework that provides ,in principle, sufficient legal safeguards in accordance with international standards and also defines the role of the Media High Council (MHC) that plays an executive role and promotes good journalistic practices.
Despite the existing legislation and the important media reforms undertaken by the government since 2003, the state continuous to exert control on the media industry in many ways. The advertising market is dominated by government advertisements and commercial advertisements, in which some print media do not have access. The lack of sufficient printing houses affects the costs of the newspapers.
Public media outlets offered equal space and opportunities to all candidates. However, the private media is not subject to any legal limits on accepting political advertising, hence the ruling party has been able to dominate the private media, while PSD, PL and PPC had lesser visibility.
Media coverage of campaigns has been balanced, no party has yet complained about not having access to public media. No journalist has suffered intimidation or threats.
The arrangement by the public electronic media is in conformity with law governing equity in reporting, debates and advertising. Radio reporting received 3minutes on Radio and 2 ½ minutes on National TV per political party. Discussions were given 20 minutes per political party intermittently. Each of the competing political parties got 5 appearances on both TVR and Radio Rwanda.
For equal access, each of the parties got 40 seconds daily for 18 days of the campaign.Each political party also got a live coverage for rallies in Kigali City. It was also provided that each party is covered at least once for rallies at district headquarters
Reporting news was always in the order of RPF; PL; PPC and PSD. This seemed to follow either the order of candidate’s registration at NEC SMS messages during and after news was predominantly supportive of RPF. Debates had fair representation of political parties, panel of journalists; were competitive but polite. Synergy of radios with TV helped to expand reach.
Citizen participation through phone-in programs and live participation by both journalists and general public was ensured. Some parties did not use all available opportunities at district level , RPF got more coverage opportunities that public broadcasting utilized. This meant more coverage of RPF.
Public media did poorly in reporting incidents where deaths and accidents were sighted or difficulties of mobilization, crowd control, and animosity were visible. Reports by LTOs show a deficiency in coverage content
The National Election Commission (NEC) has been playing a prominent role in this “voter education campaign”. The tone has been in all media very neutral to positive.
The law on equity is hard to implement to the letter, largely because political parties have different mobilization means beyond the provisions of the law on political party financing. The two laws need to be harmonized to accommodate freedom to receive news by citizens as well as financing of political campaigns.
Participation of Women
Women were very active and participated in activities of their parties. They were part of the campaign teams, were involved in campaigns and testimony on the benefits of membership to their parties that allowed them to improve their wealth fare. There are messages specific to women such as promoting women to positions of decision making.
The women’s development, self reliance, the struggle against poverty back in most of the messages of candidates given that women represent the vast proportion of voters.
In Rwanda, women are present and active in the decision-making bodies in government and political parties. They constitute over 50% of the Rwandan population. However, very little change has been observed women as candidates and independent candidates in presidential elections.
In one positive development, the electoral law introduced a quota for female participation in all aspects of the electoral process.
However the level of coordination (provincial) of the NEC in 2010 presidential election showed a low representation of women.
NEC has produced specifics electoral materials on civic education for women.
Women’s participation in the campaign is massive, but their role is not apparent in terms of responsibility. They support the folklore but did not present the program of their parties; only the party FPR and PL gives space to women.
COMPLAINTS AND APPEALS
There have not been any official complaints recorded during this electoral process so far, or any appeals against NEC or other election-related decisions.
The legal framework for electoral complaints is generally adequate. However, in the event of a judicial complaint, there is limited recourse to appeal since the first body to consider complaints after the NEC is the Supreme Court. Following the Court’s determination, there would be no further appeal possible.
Procedures for transmission and consolidation of polling centre results at sector level were lacking in clarity and this was reflected in inconsistent practices that were difficult to observe.
COUNTING AND CONSOLIDATION
Transparency of polling station counting would be enhanced by a legal or procedural requirement to immediately post results outside each polling station.
Electoral procedures regarding the transmission of results and physical location of consolidation were lacking in detail, and this was reflected in practice. Practice was inconsistent around the country, as was information provided to observers. Observers’ access to this stage of the process was significantly limited. In some cases observers were actually prevented from attending and in others they were not informed of the location of sector-level consolidation.
Final Report on local elections 2011:
Civil Society Observation Mission (CSEOM) acknowledgement
The Civil Society Elections Observation Mission-CSEOM brings together several members of the civil society drawn from different organizations and at different levels. The mission is composed of 11 Core Team members, 30 Long Term Observers and 500 Short Term Observers covering all the 30 districts,416 sectors and 496 polling stations. The Chief observer, Eugene RWIBASIRA, leads the CSEOM.
The CSEOM is thankful to the National Electoral Commission (NEC) who facilitated the accreditation of her observers.
It also conveys her special thanks to the local leaders who demonstrated good cooperation and provided all the information and support that was needed.
The CSEOM is grateful to the European Union for her generous financial support, which enabled the CSEOM to accomplish its mission to deploy a big team of observers for the 2011 Rwandan Local Elections.
More thanks also go to the organizations that contributed the observers for such a long observation period despite the heavy work schedules in their institutions.
Finally, the CSEOM would like to acknowledge the outstanding and professional contribution of all CSEOM Observers for the success of the mission. A big vote of thanks is extended to the Core Team, LTOs, and STOs for the availability, the excellent teamwork and organizational capacities they demonstrated before, during and after the elections.
REPORT OF RESULTS ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT ELECTIONS HELD IN FEBRUARY AND MARCH 2011
For the third time after the Tutsi Genocide of 1994, local elections took place from the 4th of
February 2011 to 5th March 2011.
In general these elections were conducted in a conducive environment and there was a
very good turn up of voters.
Local elections at village (umudugudu), cell and sector levels were carried out between 4th and
Elections at Sector and District level were carried out from 21st February 2011 to 26/2/2011.
Elections for women, youth and people living with disabilities were conducted from 13th
February 2011 to 5th March 2011.
2. Summary of election proceedings
In general, the elections were, free and fair, there was a high turn up of voters who freely elected candidates of their choice despite some irregularities.
3. Main items of the Report
3.1. Conduct of elections
3.1.1. Part One:
220.127.116.11. Elections at village, cell and sector level took place between 4 February and 19th February.
Generally the elections were free and fair, there was a high turn up of voters. People made their choices in a conducive and secure environment. At village level, voters lined behind the candidates of their choice. In every village committee two women and one youth representative were elected to represent the village in the cell council.
In some places, elections started late at village level. This was because voters did not turn up on time especially in Kigali City and in the southern province.
At some polling stations, supervisors of elections did not bother to verify the required number of voters (quorum) which is (1/2) in order for the elections to take place. Lists of voters were not used and this made it hard to know the level of turn up of voters.
Of the 496 polling stations observed, in 9 sites, there were many secondary schools and higher institutions of learning, where students influenced the outcome of elections. Below are some examples:
On the elections of 4/02/2011, there was no provision for sufficient loudspeakers at polling centres despite the many villages congregated there.
Voter education was done through media outlets. However, the population and even some electoral commission agents had limited knowledge of the elective positions at village level on the polling day.This is indicative of the level of civic education done within the communities prior to election. The big number of those positions and the fact that all of them were to be voted for in just one day demanded sufficient voter education.
18.104.22.168. Elections held on 13 February, 2011:
In 5 polling stations, women elections did not respect time. This happened in the southern province and Kigali city.
The Law no 02/2011 of 10/02/2011 that govern organization and functioning of the Women Council and Law no 03/2011 of 10/02/2011 governing the organization and functioning of the National Council for People with disabilities were published in official Gazette on 11/2/2011 two days to the elections.
22.214.171.124.Elections of 19/2/2011:
These elections were for representatives of youth, women and people with disabilities on different committees and councils from sector to national level.
In general these elections went on well at village, cell, and sector levels despite few problems that were as a result of limited number of candidates for the councils in some sectors. This was because most contestants did not have the required education levels as per article 18 of the law no 03/2011 of 10/02/2011 governing the organization and functioning of the national councils for people with disabilities which stipulates that candidates for the executive committee at both sector and district level must hold an A2 level certificate. As a result many committees did not get the required number of members. A case in point is in the sectors of Busasamana, Kanama, Nyundo and Rugerero of Rubavu district where out of the 27 candidates in the district, only 20 were qualified.
3.1.2. Part 2:
126.96.36.199. From 21-26 February, elections were held at the level of Sector, with direct elections on 21 February.
These elections were to elect members of the district council in general and particularly 30% of women in all district and sector councils. The following were observed:
b) Some supervisors of the elections and local leaders abused their powers and influenced people to vote for some candidates.
3.1.3. Part 3:
Elections for women councils, youth and people with disabilities took place from 13th February 2011 to 5th March 2011.
In, general elections at cell, sector level, district level and at Kigali city level were free and fair. They were characterized by transparency and fair competition.
4. Legal issues.
In general, laws and elections guidelines were adhered to and this is demonstrated by:
5. Media conduct during local elections.
Media freedoms are provided for in article no 34 of the constitution of the Republic of Rwanda. During the local elections, the media outlets comprised of; TVR, 22 Radio stations, and 30 newspapers. Of these, 04 Kinyarwanda newspapers; Imvaho, Umwezi, Izuba Rirashe and Rushyashya, 02 English papers New Times, and Rwanda Dispatch and 01 French paper La Nouvelle Relève stood out more prominently than others during elections. It was observed that during elections, there were no restrictions or harassment on journalists nor censorship on media at all stages of elections.
The print media also covered all events unhindered during elections highlighting some irregularities. Some items that featured most were the role of students in elections, the last-minute withdraw of candidatures, the electoral officials and local leaders who abused their responsibilities and indulged in malpractices in favor of certain candidates. The numeracy of the private media with the public ones gave chance to the population to enjoy the different but complimentary news and views on the electoral process.
In general, these elections were conducted in a conducive environment and there was a high turn up of voters. However, the irregularities that marred the elections could easily be avoided if; civic and voter education is done early and sufficiently, election stakeholders are impartial, laws are respected in entirety and provide for freedoms for voters and candidates.
Despite the highlighted irregularities, these elections were generally free and fair with calmness at polling stations and a fair level of competition for different positions. Therefore, there is no reason to contest the results.
Bye, bye, Nyakatsi
Voici en Kinyarwanda le rapport de mission de la délégation de la plate forme de la société civile en Districts de Bugesera, Huye et Nyanza sur la problématique des potiers vis à vis du programme national de Bye Bye Nyakatsi
Raporo y’ubutumwa bwo ku wa 6 Kamena 2011 mu Karere ka Bugesera, Huye na Nyanza
Ku italiki ya 6 Kamena 2011, intumwa z’Inama y’Ubuyobozi bwa Plate Forme ya Sosiyete Sivile y’u Rwanda zasuye uturere twa Bugesera, Huye na Nyanza mu rwego rwo kureba uko abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka bamerewe nyuma yo gusenyerwa muri politiki ya Leta yo guca nyakatsi mu Rwanda. Itsinda rimwe ryagiye mu Bugesera risura i Ruhuha na Musenyi, irindi rijya i Huye na Nyanza risura abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka bo mu Mudugudu wa Nyarurama, Akagali ka Byinza, Umurenge wa Kinazi, akarere ka Huye n’Umudugudu wa Kabasima, Akagali ka Nkomero, Umurenge wa Mukingo, Akarere ka Nyanza.
Ikipe yagiye mu Bugesera yari igizwe na:
Itsinda ryagiye i Huye na Nyanza ryari rigizwe na:
MUNYAKAZI Jean Paul
NTAMUNOZA Eliel, Umukozi wa COPORWA ushinzwe Intara y’Amajyepfo
I. Mu Karere ka Huye, Umurenge wa Kinazi, Akagali ka Byinza, hasuwe abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka batuye mu Mudugudu wa Nyarurama i Mago. Imiryango 12 yari ituye mu nzu za nyakatsi yarasenyewe none ubu ngubu abantu barenga 10 basigaye babana mu tuzu 2. Buri kazu ntikarenza 3m kuri 2m. Hari n’abibera hanze ku gasozi munsi y’ibiti n’abandi bongeye kugondagonda akandi kazu k’ibyatsi. Nyuma yo kuganira n’ababa muri ubwo buzima budakwiriye ikiremwa- muntu ndetse n’inyamaswa, hari ibibazo bikwiriye kugirirwa ubuvugizi bwihariye kugira ngo ubuyobozi bushinzwe imibereho myiza y’abaturage n’uburenganzira bw’ikiremwa muntu bw’ibanze bubagoboke mu maguru mashya batararimbuka.
Ikibazo cy’imiturire: uburyo babayeho si ubwo ikiremwa muntu. Muri gahunda yo kuvugurura imiturire basenyewe nyakatsi bimurirwa mu midugudu, ku basigajwe inyuma n’amateka haba ikibazo cy’ingurane cy’ibibanza bazatuzwamo kuko batagira ubutaka. Gukemura iki kibazo nuko Leta yabaha aho bubakirwa cyangwa bubaka n’imirima yo guhingamo nk’abandi banyarwanda. Bahabwa ubutaka nta ngurane bakabona aho bubaka naho bahinga nk’abandi banyarwanda. Abarenganyijwe bakamburwa amasambu yabo kubera ubujiji bakayasubizwa nta yandi mananiza kuko hari ababubarayeho bakababeshya ko babaguriye cyangwa se bakigabiza amasambu yabo mu gihe bo babaga bakurikiye ba shebuja cyangwa se abo bakoreraga.
Uburezi: mu gihe abandi bana b’abanyarwanda bari muri gahunda y’uburezi kuri bose, abana b’abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka bo baribagiranye, umwanda , inzara n’indwara bigiye kubamarira ku icumu. Aho hantu twasuye higa mbarwa mu bana bari bahari.
Imiriren’ubuzima bwiza ni inzozi ku basigajwe inyuma n’amateka cyane cyane ku bana n’abagore batwite. Nta mutuelle de sante bagira ku buryo iyo hari urwaye, kuruhonoka aba ari ha Mana.
Abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka bafite ikibazo cy’abana batagira ba se kuko abakobwa b’abatwakazi basambanywa bamara kubyara ba se b’abana bakabigarika, bakabahakana. Iyo baregeye abayobozi b’inzego z’ibanze, barasuzugurwa ibibazo byabo ntibihabwe agaciro ngo bikemurwe nk’iby’abandi baturage. Ako karengane kabagirirwa n’ako ni ako kurwanywa kakarimburwa.
Akarengane k’amashyirahamwe y’abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka iyo hageze guhabwa imirima yo guhingwamo n’amashyirahamwe. Urugero ni urw’ishyirahamwe Abakarabanganzo b’i MAGO batuye mu nkengero z’igishanga gihingwamwo umuceri batahawe n’imetero 1 yacyo kandi ari bo bari kuhabona amaboloke mbere y’abandi nk’abahatuye.
II. Mu Karere ka Nyanza, Umurenge wa Mukingo, Akagali ka Nkomero, hasuwe abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka basnyewe nyakatsi mu mudugudu wa Nyankokoma bimurirwa mu Mudugudu wa Kabasina mu mazu ya Police. Harimo kwubakwa amazu 2 arimo inzu 4 zitaruzura. Kwubaka bisa nk’ibyahagaze kandi imiryango igomba kuzituramo imerewe nabi. Hari imiryango 10 icumbikiwe mu twumba tubamwo nk’abantu 5 ugereranyije. Aha naho hari ibibazo bisa n’iby’abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka bose.
Ikibazo cya mutuelles de sante: Ntawivuza ngo ntibarishyurirwa, abana bararwara bagakizwa n’iyabahanze!
Ikibazo cy’amajaride y’aho bahoze, aho bari batuye mbere yo gusenyerwa nyakatsi. Bafite impungenge ko abo bari babangikanyijwe utwo turima bazatwigabiza kandi baduhingagamo imboga
Gusuzugurwa no kutumvwa n’abayobozi b’inzego z’ibanze igihe cyose babirukiye ngo babakemurire ikibazo cyane cyane icy’abanyanganyije amasambu abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka. Yewe n’inkiko ntiziha agaciro ibibazo by’ abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka kuko hari uwatsinzwe ataburanye, isambu ye ikegurirwa uwo bagombaga kuburana wayiguze amafaranga 2000!
Bavuga ko bakumirwa ntibagerweho na gahunda za Leta nka Girinka
Nta bisaswa,nta cyo kwiyorosa bagira, ikitazwi cyo n’inzitiramibu
III. Akarere ka Bugesera
Hasuwe Umurenge wa Ruhuha n’Umurenge wa Musenyi
Ibibazo by’abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka ni bimwe mu gihugu hose: imiturire, amasambu, ubuvuzi kubera ko batabona mutuelles de sante, uburezi, imirire n’ubuzima bubi, akarengane bagirirwa n’abaturanyi n’abayobozi b’inzego z’ibanze bakibasuzugura, abana b’ibinyendaro batagira ba se n’ibindi…
Ibi byose bituruka ku bujiji no kutamenya amategeko abarengera ku buryo hari hakwiriye gutekerezwa programme yihariye yo kuzamura aba basigajwe inyuma n’amateka bakubakirwa, bagatuzwa, bagahabwa ubutaka, abana babo bakigira ubuntu bagafashwa kubona ibikoresho, bakinjizwa mu buzima busanzwe bakabaho nk’abandi banyarwanda nabo bagakira ubutindi barimo. Igihe cyose batazaba babagiriye integration ngo bahinge, borore, bajye mu ishuri no mu buyobozi bave ku ngoyi y’ubujiji n’ubutindi, abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka bazakomeza kubera igihugu umutwaro w’urukozasoni. Iyi gahunda yihariye irihutirwa amazi atararenga inkombe ngo abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka bazime!
Dialogue and debate are not alien to the Rwandan Society. They have always been a common phenomenon in the history of Rwanda as a nation. Historically Rwandans lived together and solved their problems through public dialogue. The discussions were characterized by frankness, openness and trust. This culture bred social cohesion within the Rwandan society and acted as a mechanism for effective conflict management at society level.
As communities disintegrated and the eventual fleeing of Rwandans into the Diaspora as refugees, that framework for social space vanished, the traditional mechanisms of conflict resolution through dialogue were ignored and people resorted to foreign mechanisms of conflict resolution, hatred became the product of widening social gap among Rwandans. The space provided by the advent of the media was manipulated into an avenue for propagation of hatred and the outcome of which was social disharmony that culminated into the genocide.
After the genocide of 1994, and with the advent of new political establishment spearheaded by the RPF, cultural fall back became the reference for settling problems. A quick reference can be made to GACACA, ABUNZI and of the recent ITORERO as institutions that have rejuvenated and instilled Rwandan cultural values. These traditional institutions were established with the aim of fostering social cohesion and conflict management in the society.
The Rwanda Civil Society Platform has the role as representing the majority of Rwandan Civil Society in fostering debate to enable self engendered of Rwandan values and norms as a driver in promoting democracy and good governance, prerequisites to achieving sustainable development.
Citizens’ Voice and Government Accountability are important dimensions of governance; in other words, Citizens’ capacity to express and exercise their views effectively is believed to have the potential to influence government priorities and processes, including a stronger demand for responsiveness, transparency and accountability.
There have been criticisms spanning different regimes in Rwanda pertaining to limited or lack of political space and violations of the rights of the media and other similar criticisms. The regime in place has had different opinions over such criticisms in the press conferences and media, both print and electronic. These flying verbal attacks and counter-attacks have earned neither the governments nor the opposing parties any better bargain. Now that Rwanda is enjoying the fruits of peace, it is vital that the foundations are cemented to ensure this peace will last.
The Public Policy Debate is a pilot activity of the five year “Public Policy Dialogue Project (PPDP)” to be implemented by the Civil Society Platform, whose overall objective is “to promote Good Governance and rule of law through inculcating the spirit of debate among Rwandans as a mechanism for conflict resolution and space for mutual accountability”.
OBJECTIVES OF THE PUBLIC POLICY DIALOGUE
This Public Policy Dialogue meeting had the following immediate and long-term objectives:
– To build the capacity of Citizens’ participation and to demand accountability through constructive dialogue and debates.
– To have a face to face dialogue between various sections of the Rwandan community about good governance and policy issues;
– Inculcating the culture of debate, tolerance and respect of opinion of others in the Rwandan community;
– To strengthen social cohesion
– To create a platform for dialogue on various issues relating to good governance and to give an opportunity to Rwandans to speak out on issues concerning them,
– To set up a political arena for the airing of societal problems on good governance;
– To find solutions/answers to burning questions from the Rwandan Public;
– To enhance Government accountability and to close the gap between the Government and its citizens;
– Creation of an enabling environment for the media.
This Public Policy Dialogue meeting had the following immediate and long-term Expected Outputs:
– Capacity Building of citizen in civic participation and to demand accountability is enhanced;
– A platform for continued open space for dialogue and government accountability;
– An enabling environment for the Media;
– The process of inculcating the culture of debate among Rwandans on issues concerning them is commenced;
– Government officials will provide answers to questions raised by the public;
– Face to face dialogue between various sections of the Rwandan community.
METHODOLOGY UTILISED DURING THE PUBLIC POLICY DIALOGUE
Rwandans from different political backgrounds and perspectives both in the country and in the Diaspora were convened to the meeting. Two presentations were made by two scholars of international experience on two themes, namely:
– Political Space and its exploitation in Rwanda, and
– Respect of Human Rights in Rwanda and freedom of press.
The presenters were supported by Rwandan discussants who made short briefs on the same themes, following the presentations. After every round of presentations on each theme, the debate was opened to the audience to react, respond or ask questions related to the themes. At the end of the Public Policy Dialogue, joint resolutions were presented and adopted by participants. Discussions were moderated by persons chosen for their integrity in the Rwandan Civil Society.
All participants and presenters were treated equally in order to maintain the spirit of debate and ensure that there is equal playground for all. The debate was devoid of intimidation, fear or insults to individuals or institutions.
The debates were conducted in Kinyarwanda to allow effective participation in the dialogue meeting for all Rwandan, and for foreigners participating; simultaneous translation was availed inside the debating room in both French and English. The debates were broadcasted live on the National Radio and on Rwanda Television so as to reach out to Rwandans of all walks of life countrywide.
Observation, where citizens expressed the need for a Civil Society forum where they will be allowed to freely express their views, he pointed out that freedom of expression has a direct consequence on sustainable development. “A few setbacks however, remained: Why does it take 24 hours to register a company, but gets complicated to register a political party? Why is it that people flee the country once they have been demoted from their political positions? Is the fear of lack of space genuine or utopia?” He interrogated…
While encouraging participants to speak their mind freely during the Public Policy Dialogue, he reminded that the policy dialogue would be a test to assess the existence or lack of the political space and freedoms in Rwanda
RESOLUTIONS OF THE PUBLIC POLICY DIALOGUE ON POLITICAL SPACE ON FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND FREEDOM OF MEDIA AND THE RESPECT OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN RWANDA
We, the participants to the Public Policy Dialogue on Political Space on freedom of Expression and Freedom of Media and the respect of Human Rights in Rwanda, taking place at the Serena Hotel on the 14th December 2010,
The dialogue that brought together the Rwandan Civil Society, the Government of Rwanda Representatives, representatives of political parties registered in Rwanda, the Private Sector, members of the Rwandan Diaspora, members of the Media, members of the Diplomatic Corps in Rwanda and Development Partners;
Having debated in an open, honest, free and conducive environment on several issues concerning governance, freedoms and progress in Rwanda, with the aim to consolidate promote the culture of free and open dialogue and social cohesion among Rwandan people.
Do jointly adopt the following resolutions:
1. The civil society should be congratulated for having organized this Public Policy dialogue that in consistent with the Rwandan Constitution and other laws.
2. The civil society should continue to organize dialogues of this nature as a true indicator of the existence of freedom of expression, and given their importance in the governance of the country and in the welfare of the citizens they should be given ample time;
3. To continue to sensitize the public on the culture of mutual respect, speaking the truth, constructive dialogue and debate, accepting opposing ideas and dissenting opinion with tolerance;
4. Commend the presence of Rwandans form the Diaspora, especially those from Malawi, Zambia and Canada for their effort, openness and freedom manifested in expressing their opinions in this dialogue;
5. Recommend that Rwandans in exile should continue to be visited and given a true picture of the country, in an effort to address the existing information gap on the reality and progress in Rwanda. The initiative to share information and present a true picture of Rwanda should be jointly implemented by the Government and the Civil Society to ensure its objectiveness and credit;
6. Communication material on the current status of Rwanda should be developed and disseminated worldwide, with the aim to present a true picture of the country;
7. Discussions should continue on issues that have comeback several times in the debates, including Political Space, freedom of expression, freedom of media and the respect of Human rights in Rwanda, with the aim to foster them and scale-up the performance of their relevant institutions;
8. Due to the prevailing freedom of opinion in the meeting, and the clear explanations given in the debates, we recommend that reports of such debates be disseminated with the aim to give a true picture of the country, waive the fear of Rwandans and others, living in the country and in the Diaspora on the prevailing freedom of expression in Rwanda.
9. We are satisfied with the good work relationship between the Government of Rwanda and the Civil Society and recommend that the partnership should be fostered.
It has been proven and indisputably clear that, dialogue is an important tool for Citizen Participation, and cements the pillars of democracy and good governance. It helps in eliminating suspicion and mistrust between duty bearers and right holders.
Citizens become more enlightened about the services offered by the government and difficulties it faces while providing these services. On the other hand, the government gets informed about Citizens’ complaints on the offered services, thus giving it an opportunity to improve on its service delivery.
The Rwanda Civil Society Platform (RCSP) recognizing its role as representing the majority of the Rwanda Civil Society Organizations in fostering debate as a space for dialogue and conflict resolution, in 2010 introduced a framework of Public Policy Dialogues intended to create a dialogue platform and give Rwandans an opportunity to speak out on Good Governance issues concerning them.
The first was conducted at National Level in 2010 December 14th at Hotel Serena on “the state of political space and its exploitation as well as the respect of Human Rights and freedom of press in Rwanda”.
These Public Policy Dialogues were later extended to the district level in Gisagara, Rulindo and Nyamagabe districts in order to give an opportunity to Rwandans at district and community level to air out their concerns on Public Policies and service delivery matters. The dialogues at district level were conducted on 14th of July in RULINDO District, 22nd July in Nyamagabe District and on 27th of July in Gisagara District.
The discussed topic was “the implementation of the revised Community Based health insurance scheme (CHBI) “Mutuelle de santé” and related concerns”.
During these dialogues and during the ongoing Citizen Score Card process that is conducted by the district implementing partners in the Public Policy Implementation Monitoring and Advocacy (PPIMA) project funded by SIDA through NPA, the frequently raised question by citizens, was why the fees CHBI have been raised despite low financial capacity of citizens at community level to cover the cost of new premiums.
This underpins the need for citizens’ participation in decision making process, hence the Rwanda Civil Society platform decided to conducted a research on citizens participation in Imihigo process with a view of assessing the levels and factors affecting effective citizens’ participation in the Imihigo process and recommend areas of improvement. This research was also aimed at mapping spaces or opportunities available for fostering citizen’s participation as well as identifying strategies and measures needed to improve citizen’s participation in order to safeguard the achievements made by performance contracts so far.
Basing on the recommendations drawn from these dialogues at district level and complaints raised by citizens on Mutuelle de santé during the ongoing Community Score Card process under PPIMA project, and on issues and recommendation raised in the recent RCSP report produced on Citizens’ participation in Imihigo process, the Rwanda Civil Society Platform has decided to organize a national dialogue in order to inform policy makers and duty bearers on key citizens’ concerns on the current Community Based Health Insurance scheme and on Citizens’ participation in Imihigo process.
Basing on its duty to advocate for the people on one hand, and considering the responsibility of the Government to be held accountable to the public on the other, the Rwanda Civil Society Platform [RCSP] organized a Public Debate on Citizen’s Participation in the Imihigo process and on the Community-Based Health Insurance Scheme (CBHI), popularly known as Mutuelle de Santé, in order to inform policy makers on the Citizen’s concerns on their implementation. This debate took place on the 13th of December 2011 at the Kigali Serena Hotel.
The survey on Citizen’s Participation in the Imihigo was launched during this public debate. The survey showed that Rwandans were generally happy with the contribution of performance contracts (Imihigo) in national development. In the survey, citizens suggested that performance contracts be adopted at the village level as a linkage between the leaders and the led for more effective implementation.
The second topic under discussion during the public debate was “The implementation of the revised Community-Based Health Insurance scheme (CBHI), “Mutuelle de santé”, and related concerns”.
During the ongoing Citizen Score Card process, conducted by the Public Policy Implementation Monitoring and Advocacy (PPIMA) project, the question frequently raised by citizens was why the CBHI fees have been raised without consideration for the capacity of citizens to pay the new premiums.
In 2010 the RCSP introduced Public Policy Dialogues with the intention of creating a platform for Rwandans to speak out on governance issues affecting them and the last debate was in keeping with what they anticipate will soon become a tradition.
The purpose of the Public Policy Dialogue on CBHI and on citizens’ participation in the Imihigo process was to share information from the district dialogue forums and the Community Score Card and to create a platform for citizens to publicly engage policy makers on the issues raised by both initiatives.
This event was also an occasion to discuss how the population could engage with the government during Accountability Day as a way of improving transparency and service delivery in public institutions.
The dialogue was broadcasted live on Rwanda Television and radio Rwanda.
The accusations were made by Edward Munyamaliza, the president of the Rwanda Civil Society Platform (RCSP), during an event to commemorate the Genocide over the weekend.
Addressing the press at Rwanda Civil Society Platform offices at Kacyiru after a walk by members of civil society platform, Munyamaliza said that the civil society at the time failed to play its role as over one million people were killed.
“We have had lessons from the past. As the civil society today, it is our objective to fight the Genocide and uphold the truth, which our colleagues in the past failed to do,”
“Those who don’t uphold the truth or deliberately deny or minimize the Genocide, have no other intention but to drag the country back into that same mess, something we will not allow to happen,” Munyamariza said.
Munyamariza said that the civil society plays an influential role in the society and therefore has the obligation, through various mechanisms, to fight the Genocide ideology and anything that would want to drag the country into the dark past.
He noted that Genocide deniers are not only Rwandans but also some foreigners, who members of the civil society interact with on a daily basis.
Among other things, he said the civil society platform has played a role in the reconciliation and development process since 1994.
He said that where the civil society failed at the time, the new civil society is ready to make up by playing an integral role in the socio-economic development process.
The workshop and dialogue are intended to build the capacity of civil society and raise their awareness in order to be able to join hands with their partners in the struggle to make aid work , especially for the poorest , and also to create a platform for continuous engagement of the civil society with the government and development partners on matters related to aid/development effectiveness.
“Our civil society has not been very vibrant, but this information-sharing and capacity-building workshop will make more aware of our duty, which is to play an advocate role for the poor in the agenda,” said Rwmda Civil Society Platform (RCSP)’s Chairperson Edouard Munyamaliza
According to Innocent Mutabaruka, Action Aid agent in the country, building the capacity in CSOs is the best way to go in order to make sure that the needed impact in the process is effectively realized.
“We want to see our CSOs taking people involved in aid and development programs to account in order to know what’s working and what’s not. It’s the community that we are supposed to serve, that’s why in the whole process we have to stand for ‘only’ the poor’s interests.”
For Ronald Nkusi, the director of external finance unit at MINECOFIN, aid effectiveness must not be a bilateral issue between the government and donors. “It extends to the civil society which takes the issue down to the people. It must be multilateral.”
He added that the civil society has the key power in the whole process, mainly related to what the people in the countryside are benefiting. “We need to see the government held to account from the results on the ground, donors pledging and accounting for their pledges not delivered, and also we want to know what the CSOs do with all the funding they receive.”
The CSOs’ building workshop and dialogue on aid effectiveness is supposed to establish a platform for continuous engagement of the CSOs with GoR and development partners on matters of aid effectiveness.
The workshop and dialogue is participatory; there is an experience sharing with resourceful persons from Better Aid, government (MINECOFIN) and members of Rwanda’s CSOs.
Water is both an economic and social good, and the recommended minimum objective unit of water supply rate is 20liters per day in rural areas, and this is an indication on how water is very important in reserving human life. In allocating water resources, priority must be given to the social functions of water in society. This means that, domestic uses of water shall be accorded priority in allocation decisions, particularly in times of shortage .Additionally, there should be equity in allocation of water to rural and urban areas and those in lower and lower wealthy quintiles. Although there should be full cost recovery by entities providing water supplies, there should be targeted subsidies to meet the basic needs of the most disadvantaged communities. It is also imperative to involve water users and other stake holders in making all decision related to water resources managements and allocation. This is crucial to achieve best and sustainable results in water resource management.
According to the representative of the Ministry of Infrastructure in this conference, the main objective of National Water and Sanitation Policy is to ensure sustainable and affordable access to safe water supply, sanitation and waste management services for all Rwandans, as a contribution to poverty reduction, public health, economic development and environmental protection.
The Ministry of Infrastructure set up the specific objectives of National Policy and Strategy for water supply, that is to say: Raising rural water supply coverage to 85% by 2017 and 100% by 2020 through decentralization (7 years Government program); Ensuring sustainable functionality by developing effective management structures and well-regulated public-private partnership (PPP) arrangements; Ensuring safe, reliable and affordable urban water supply services for all(100%services coverage by 2017) while strengthening the financial viability of the utility.
The Ministry also embarks on raising house hold sanitation coverage to 65%, and promoting hygiene behavior change through its stake holder EWSA. Implementation of improved sanitation for Infrastructures such as schools, health facilities, and other public institutions and locations.
Enhancement of water management to mitigate impacts on priorities, Infrastructure, human health and the environment, together with implementation of integrated solid waste management in ways that are protective to human health and the environment. This will lead also to the development of the sector’s institutional and capacity building frame work.
The Ministry of Infrastructure focuses on Projects implementation (priority projects to achieve 100% by 2017), and it is estimated that by December 2012, the ongoing projects will increase access to safe drinking water to 811,965 people, equivalent to 7.3%.
It ensures the preparation of National water supply Master plan National wide, construction and upgrading of Water treatment plants (WTP) and extension of water network. The Ministry also is putting much emphasis on construction of water supply schemes in 17 new emerging towns in western, southern, northern, and eastern provinces. Construction of water supply schemes also in 7 secondary towns in the same provinces is also in place.
Construction of 5,143km of new water supply schemes to supply IMIDUGUDU in rural areas in all districts, and rehabilitation of 2,202km of existing nonfunctional water supply schemes.
Finally, the Ministry intervened in extending electricity grid to water pumping stations that are currently using diesel fuel and cluster water supply schemes to increase economies of scale and low cross subsidies between systems with high and low production cost.
Rwanda’s Vision 2020 and its Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) aim at the development of a knowledge-based and technology-led economy.
In this context, Rwanda has embarked on reforms aiming at improving every aspect of quality education. In line with these efforts, the government of Rwanda has focused on aligning curriculum, teaching and learning, and assessment to ensure that the education system is producing the kind of citizens the country desires.
The second pillar of the Vision 2020 highlights the general need to regularly examine curricula in terms of their relevance to assist in the achievements of education and national development goals and objectives. While curriculum is not the only factor influencing education quality, it is the core of the entire education system.
Rwanda’s government remains committed to achieving UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) number 2 and 3, which call for the opportunity for all children to complete the full course of primary education and for gender disparities in primary and secondary schools to be eliminated by 2015 respectively. The country has made great strides in achieving these goals, with a net primary school enrolment rate of 91.7% . It appears that by 2015, Rwanda will have achieved, or, at least, have come very close to achieving MDG 2 and the education aspects of MDG 3.
In addition to meeting the education policy goals set forth by international organisations, Rwanda maintains its own strategic goals as discussed in the two primary documents, the Rwanda Vision 2020, and the EDPRS. The former emphasizes education’s role in creating human capital to bolster Rwanda’s economy. The policy calls for training and educating people at all levels, including adults that lack the basic education and skills necessary for employment. The EDPRS policy echoes the need for access to quality education at all levels, with the addition of high level objectives related to educational effectiveness, the strengthening of science and technology teaching, and the widespread use of ICT.
In summary, the policy goals of Rwanda’s education system are aimed at creating an educated workforce with the technological knowhow to engage in service sector employment. These goals reflect the government’s overall plan for Rwanda to become a technology hub in Africa, which is based on the fact that the nation’s limited stock of natural resources and arable land necessitate its transformation into a knowledge economy rather than one based on industry or agriculture.
Icyerekezo cy’u Rwanda muri 2020 na gahunda y’imbaturabukungu bifite intego yo guteza imbere ubumenyi ngiro, ikoranabuhanga n’ubukungu.
Muri iyigahunda, u Rwanda rwashyize imbaraga mu ihinduramatwara rishingiye ku guteza imbere ireme ry’uburezi binyuze muri izi ngufu, leta y’u Rwandayashyizeho gahunda yo kwigisha, kwiga ndetse no kugenzura gahunda y’uburezi kugirango butange abaturage igihugu gikeneye.
Igice cya kabiri cy’ingenzi cy‘icyerekezo 2020 kigaragaza iby’ibanze bikenewe kugirango bagenzure buri gihe gahunda y’amasomo ifasha kugera kuntego z’uburezi n’iterambere ry’igihugu. Nubwo gahunda y’amasomo atariyo yonyine ituma habaho ireme ry’uburezi ariko n’iyingenzi.
Leta y’u Rwanda izakomeza gushyira ingufu mukugera kuntego z’ikinyagihumbi UN yihaye mu iterambere igice cya kabiri nicya gatatu; ihamagarira abana kudapfusha ubusa amahirwe yo kwiga amashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye izarangirana na 2015. Mu gihugu cyateye intambwe nini mu kugera kuri izintego kukigereranyo kingana na 91.7% mu mashuri abanza. Bigaragara ko mu mwaka wa 2015, u Rwnda ruzaba rwabigezeho cyangwa, rwenda kugera kuntego z’ikinyagihumbi igice cya kabiri ndetse n’isura y’uburezi mu kinyagihumbi mu gice cya gatatu.
Ikindi mukuzuza intego z’uburezi zashyizweho n’imiryango mpuzamahanga, u Rwnda rwakomeje ingamba zarwo nkuko zagaragajwe mu byiciro bibiri, icyerekezo 2020 na gahunda y’imbaturabukungu. Ibyo bigaragaza akamaro k’uburezi mu guha umuntu ubushobozi mu kuzamura ubukungu bw’u Rwanda. Iyogahunda ihamagarira abantu guhabwa amahugurwa no kwigisha abaturage bo mu byiciro byose, harimo abakuru batagize amahirwe yo kubona uburezi n’ubumenyi by’ingenzi kugirango babone imirimo.
Gahunda y’imbaturabukungu igaragaza ibikenewe kugirango tugere ku ireme ry ‘uburezi mu byiciro byose, hamwe n’intego zo kurwego rwo hejuru zijyanye n’umusaruro w’uburezi ukenewe; gushyira imbaraga muri sayansi, kwigisha ikoranabuhanga no kuri kwirakwiza hose.
Muri make, gahunda y’u Rwanda mu burezi ifite intego yo gushyiraho abakozi bize bazi gukoresha ikoranabuhanga ku umurimo.
Izi gamba zijyanye na gahunda ya leta y’u Rwanda yo gutanga serivise y’ikoranabuhanga muri afurika bishingiye kumutungo kamere w’igihugu mukeya, gukoresha ubutaka bukeya dufite neza tububyaza ubwenge bwo guteza imbere ubukungu mu mwanya wo kububonamo ubw’inganda, ubuhinzi n’ubworozi gusa.
For the second time after the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi, Rwandans have elected a new Constitution based on the 2003 Constitution as amended to date. In general, the Constitutional Referendum elections prepared based on people’s demand were conducted on 18/12/2015 in calm, secure, free and fair mood. Automatic word wrap
Civil Society organizations have among their roles and responsibilities to act as advocates of the people in development agendas that affect the lives of the population, and promote democratic values and principles. In this regard, the Civil Society Platform in conjunction with its members and structures have deployed 473 short-term Observers, 30 Long-Term Observers, and 12 Core-Team members (515 observers in total) in order to carry out electoral observation countrywide, present in 303 sectors and 398 polling stations. The civil society observers conducted their electoral observation activities in a professional manner based on instruction as issued by the National Electoral Commission and International Standards on democratic elections.Automatic word wrap
This constitutional referendum was conducted on 17/12/2015 for Rwandans living in Diaspora, and on 18/12/2015 for Rwandans living in Rwanda based on the 04/06/2003 Constitution modifications as were demanded by more than 3.7 million of Rwandans and received by the Parliament of Rwanda. This referendum is also organized based and in line with the electoral law n027/2010 of 19/06/2010 and amended to date, and the Presidential Order n0112/01 of 09/12/2015 that determines the date and the object of the Referendum, as well as the National Electoral Commission’s Instructions on election n0 04/2015 of 10/12/2015 that provide the proceedings of the 2015 constitutional referendum. Automatic word wrap
In general, the following are the broad picture of what civil society observes came up with:Automatic word wrap
• The constitutional referendum election started on time, the turn up was high, and in general the closure was on time as provided for by the law and instructions;Automatic word wrap
• Elections were conducted in a calm atmosphere, were seed to generally free and fair, and security was ensured;Automatic word wrap
• The staff of the National Electoral Commission were supportive and carrying out their duties professionally during the elections;Automatic word wrap
• Electoral materials were provided to the polling station on time;Automatic word wrap
• The polling rooms provided enough security for voters to elect in independence;Automatic word wrap
• Other observers were present on various sites (international and local observers);Automatic word wrap
• Media freedom was ensured;Automatic word wrap
• Civil society observers were facilitated to carry out their mission as observer, by getting appropriate accreditations, and observing electoral processes on sites;Automatic word wrap
While commending the how the constitutional referendum elections were well prepared and organized on the ground in general, some issues are worth mentioning here as observed in some polling stations:Automatic word wrap
• Some National Electoral Commission Staff refused sharing some key data with our observers( kibungo sector, etc);Automatic word wrap
• Some civil society observers were not allowed entry to some of the consolidation rooms (Nyanza, Huye- Ngoma Ecole autonome, sector of Tumba-site Kibondo, Ruhango);Automatic word wrap
• Some electoral matierials were either not sufficient or came late to the site (Nyanza-busasamana-kavumu site, Kicukiro- site EP Kinunga: Site of St Andre, site ya kamuhanga, cyahafi, etc);Automatic word wrap
• The time for preparation of the constitutional referendum was not sufficient for civil society organizations to be well prepared for observatory activities. Automatic word wrap
These issues presented here are minor that can be improved in future, compared to the way the constitutional referendum elections were prepared and conducted in a professional way. So, as civil society organizations in Rwanda, we find that the constitutional referendum elections were free and fair, and commend the efforts by the Parliament and the Government of Rwanda to respond to the People’s demands in this regard. Automatic word wrap
Done at Kigali, on 19/12/2015
Munyamaliza EdouardAutomatic word wrap
Chief Observer, on behalf ofAutomatic word wrap
The Civil Society Electoral Observation Mission (CSEOM)
GBV IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES
. Background and Rationale
Rwanda Civil Society Platform (RCSP) was created as a non-profit making umbrella organization in 2004 with an objective to set up a plat-form for information sharing and consultation between CSOs and their partners.The Rwanda Civil Society Platform is composed of 9 national umbrellas with nearly 1500 member organizations.RCSP serves to enhance CSOs to contribute to the well-being of the population by acting as a framework for dialogue, context analysis, exchange of information, mutual respect, lobbying and evidence based advocacy on national, regional and international issues on behalf of all members of Rwanda civil society and citizens of Rwanda at large. Its mission is to empower, represent, coordinate and defend public interests and interest of its members at national, regional and international levels for development, effectiveness and sustainability.
Rwanda Civil Society Platform with the support of Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA ) through the Public Policy Information Monitoring and Advocacy (PPIMA III) project and in line with its core business of advocating for the issues that hinder the socioeconomic development of Rwandans.Through consultations of PPIMA project partners who conduct Community Score Card (CSC) process, RCSP is concerned by the issue of land expropriation and transfer process in Rwanda particularly as an issue that may affect the socioeconomic development of individuals and the national development in general.
In this perspective, the Rwanda Civil Society Platform commissioned a study on analysis of land expropriation and transfer process in Rwanda as an issue that is frequently raised by expropriated households and those experienced land transfers, thus it requires a special attention to all expropriating entities including the central and local government, the private sector and civil society are called to join efforts and address not only issues observed in expropriation and land transfer but all the issues that hinder the socioeconomic welfare of the population.
Since 2016 and 2017,RCSP and PPIMA project implementersreceived a large number of land expropriation and transfers related complaints from citizens through community score card, it is in that framework, RCSP conducted an in-depth research to carry out an evidence based advocacy.
In this regard, the Rwanda Civil Society Platform is organizing a Public Policy dialogue as a space for interaction and discussions on the issues highlighted in the process of expropriation and land transfer among different stakeholders including the government, development partners, private sector, the Civil Society and citizens for better solutions to address the issues observed and therefore, propose policy actions.
Thus, public policy national dialogue is an annual event falling in the mission of advocating for issues that hinder the socioeconomic well-being of the population. Furthermore, the Public Policy Dialogue is an opportunity to share the findings between the Government, different development actors, stakeholders, Civil Society and citizens themselves and find together sustainable solutions to the bottlenecks highlighted in the land expropriation and transfer process.
2. Objectives of the Civil Society Public Policy Dialogue
2.1. The overall objective
The overall objective of the dialogue is to provide a face to face interaction and a space for dialogue between various actors for discussing the issues observed in the land expropriation and transfer process for them to take adequate measures.
2.2. Specific objectives
1. Provide space for citizens to present issues encountered in the land expropriation process and suggest alternative solutions to decision makers and other stakeholders.
2. Provide space for citizens to present issues relating to land transfers and suggest alternative solutions to decision makers and other stakeholders.
3. Solicit the commitment of decision makers towards resolving the issues highlighted in the land expropriation and transfer process.
4. Call up on different stakeholders including government and private sector to jointly take corrective measures in order to conduct expropriation projects for the public interest while considering the continuous welfare of the citizens to be expropriated.
3. Expected results
1. Common framework for engagement on land expropriation and transfer issues is strengthened to build synergies for effective socioeconomic development of the citizens and the country in general,
2. Solution paths for addressing the issues observed in the land expropriation and transfer process are identified and discussed for the betterment of a clear implementation of the law,
3. Commitment of all stakeholders towards advocating and executing recommended policy actions as formulated from the bottlenecks identified in a bid to promote a citizen centered framework in the land expropriation and transfer process.
4. Target Participants
The Civil Society public policy national dialogue is targeting high officials representing ministries and other Government institutions,Civil Society Organizations (both national and international),Embassies, Development partners, local authorities (all districts), academia and ordinary citizens.
5. Language of the Dialogue
– English, Kinyarwanda and French will be used with a simultaneous interpretation .
6. Date and Venue
The Civil Society public policy national dialogue on the land expropriation and transfer process in Rwandawill be held on30th November, 2017 at Kigali Convention Centre (KCC)from 8: 00AM to 4: 00 PM.
LIST OF INVITEES TO THE CIVIL SOCIETY PUBLIC POLICY DIALOGUE.
MINISTRIES AND GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS
Minister in the President’s office
Minister of Land and Forestry (Guest of Honor)
Senate/ Socio-Economic Commission
Chamber of deputies / Socio-Economic Commission
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS
RWANDA LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE AUTHORITY
CITY OF KIGALI
Mayors and Directors of District One Stop Center
CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS
RWANDA RELIGIOUS LEADERS Forum PAX PRESS
NEVER AGAIN RWANDA IMBARAGA
IRDP TUBIBE AMAHORO
MONITORING AND EVALUATION FINAL RESULTS
Please download The Results
Different civil society organisation in Rwanda attended a one day Technical-Consultative meeting on CSOs Thematic Working Groups at Olympic Hotel Kimironko. The aim of the meeting was to foster the implementation of Thematic Working Groups.The Dialogue was graced by executive secretary of RCSP Mr. silas Sinyigaya.
The overall objective of the TWGs is to set up a framework for dialogue, reflection and exchange of information among CSOs by strengthening the voice of CSOs through building coalitions/synergies for advocacy purposes in order to effectively participate and influence formulation, monitoring and implementation of policies and laws.
On behalf of Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), MR. Gatabazi Oliver thanked the participants and ensured a strong partner of the Civil Societies in strengthening CSOs for increased participation support from the organisation.
THEMATIC WORKING GROUPS FOR ALL CSOS FORMED
RCSP, with the support of Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), through the Public Policy Information Monitoring and Advocacy (PPIMA III) project and in line with its core mandate aiming at supporting CSOs and citizens to participate in policy formulation and implementation processes, established CSOs Thematic Working Groups (TWGs) .
With the intention to create a space for information sharing and consultation among CSOs and other relevant stakeholders aiming at building synergies for advocacy purposes in Rwanda so as to improve their efficiency towards contributing to national development.
The Thematic Working Groups will involve identifying issues on policies and laws relating to the TWG’s areas of intervention and then, gather relevant data and conduct researches/assessments the committees are composed of individual experts representing local civil society organizations from different domains of intervention.
Thematic Working Groups (TWGs) . are composed of three different groups
– Economic transformation TWG
– Social transformation TWG
– Transformational Governance TWG